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جستار: F-22 RAPTOR

  1. #1
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    Oct 2005
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    پیش فرض F22 Raptors History

    Prior to its selection as winner of what was then known as the Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF) competition, the F-22 team conducted a 54-month demonstration/ validation (dem/val) program. The effort involved the design, construction and flight testing of two YF-22 prototype aircraft. Two prototype engines, the Pratt & Whitney YF119 and General Electric YF120, also were developed and tested during the program. The dem/val program was completed in December 1990.



    Much of that work was performed at Boeing in Seattle, Lockheed (now known as Lockheed Martin) facilities in Burbank, Calif., and at General Dynamics' Fort Worth, Texas, facilities (now known as Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems). The prototypes were assembled in Lockheed's Palmdale, Calif., facility and made their maiden flight from there. Since that time Lockheed's program management and aircraft assembly operations have moved to Marietta, Ga., for the EMD and production phases.



    A $9.55 billion contract for Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) of the F-22 was awarded to the industry team of Boeing and Lockheed Martin in August 1991. Contract changes since then have elevated the contract value to approximately $11 billion. Under terms of the contract, the F-22 team will complete the design of the aircraft, produce production tooling for the program, and build and test nine flightworthy and two ground-test aircraft.



    In February 1995, the Air Force customer approved the final design of the F-22 air vehicle and confirmed that the program was ready to proceed to fabrication and assembly. The Air Force plans to procure 339 F-22s, and production is scheduled to run through 2013.



    Above info from The US Air Force
    INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

  2. #2
    English Site Admin
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    پیش فرض F-22 RAPTOR






    F-22 HISTORY

    Definition
    The F-22 Raptor is the world’s first stealthy air dominance fighter and is capable of multiple missions. Deadly and unseen at long range, unmatched at close-in dogfighting and with superb, precision-strike ground attack capabilities, the F-22 will establish absolute control.

    The F-22 is being built for the U.S. Air Force by Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, with Boeing as principal subcontractor and engines supplied by Pratt & Whitney.


    F-22 Mission
    The F-22 Raptor achieves air dominance of the skies over any battlefield through the skillful blending of stealth technologies, supercruise engines, integrated sensors and avionics, maneuverability and agility and long-range, internally-carried weapons. Two Pratt & Whitney F119-PW-100 engines allow the Raptor to soar to uncontested heights and achieve dry-thrust speeds unheard of by today’s fighters. Its main weapons bays carry either six radar-guided AIM-120 medium-range missiles or two AIM-120s and two 1000-lb GBU-32 Joint Direct Attack Munitions (JDAMs) for ground attack. The F-22 also packs two heat-seeking AIM-9 short-range missiles, one in each of its side weapons bays. As a result, the Raptor can fly very high, very far and very fast with little risk of detection or intercept and strike with near-impunity against both airborne and ground-based targets.


    Military Action
    The F-22 reached initial operational capability Dec. 15, 2005.



    History and Production
    Lockheed Martin won what was then called the Advanced Tactical Fighter competition in April 1991 and was put on Air Force contract to build 11 EMD test aircraft in August 1991. Manufacturing of Raptor 4001 began in 1994; the aircraft rolled out in April 1997 and was flown for the first time September 7, 1997. After nearly three years of basic flight tests, Raptor 4001 was retired from the flight test fleet in November 2000.

    Two nonflying aircraft have also been built to undergo static and fatigue testing at Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company in Marietta, Ga. The fatigue test ended after 20,000 hours, equivalent to 2.5 lifetimes of operational service.


    Production
    The Air Force plans to field the Raptors during the next decade to replace the aging fleet of F-15 Eagles. The first Raptor squadrons are operational at Langley AFB, Va. and Elmendorf AFB, Alaska.
    Other candidates include Holloman AFB, NM and Hickam AFB, Hawaii. Additional testing continues at Edwards AFB, Calif. and Nellis AFB, Nev. Pilot and maintainer training is conducted at Tyndall AFB, Fla. The F-22 is scheduled to remain in service through at least the year 2040.
    The Air Force has announced that Langley AFB, Hampton, Va, will be the first operation base for the Raptor. Other candidates include Elmendorf AFB, Alaska; Eglin AFB, Fla; and Mountain Home AFB, Idaho. The service is expected to select two or perhaps three locations to base the F-22. Additional test and training F-22s will be located at Edwards AFB, Calif.; Nellis AFB, Nev; and Tyndall AFB, Fla. The F-22 is scheduled to remain in service through at least the year 2040.




    Evolution and Enhancements
    The F-22 program began in the early 1980s as the Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF), a next-generation combat aircraft designed to confront and defeat the Soviet Air Force during the height of the Cold War. With the fall of the Berlin Wall, the role of ATF expanded to include multimission capabilities, such as precision-strike ground attack.


    Worldwide Participation
    The U.S. government at this time does not permit foreign sales of the F-22.



    Unique Characteristics
    • Four pillars of success ­ supercruise, super-agility, stealth and integrated-avionics
    • Supersonic for sustained periods of time without needing to engage afterburners
    • Ease of maintenance ­ only six commercially available tools needed for routine maintenance on the Pratt & Whitney F119-PW-100 engine
    • Common Integrated Processor (CIP) ­ heart of integrated avionics suite, these "Super Computers" can process 10.3 billion bytes per second
    انجمن انگلیسی مرجع هوانوردی و هوافضای پارسی



    انجمن انگلیسی آبروی هوانوردی ایران



  3. #3
    English Site Admin
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    پیش فرض پاسخ : F-22 RAPTOR


    TECHNOLOGY

    Air Dominance
    The F-22 Raptor, developed at Aeronautical Systems Center, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, is the replacement for the F-15 Eagle air-superiority fighter and is now ready for production.

    This aircraft combines stealth design with the supersonic, highly maneuverable, dual-engine, long-range requirements of an air-to-air fighter and will have an inherent air-to-ground capability. The F-22’s integrated avionics gives it first-look, first-shot, first-kill capability that will guarantee U.S. air dominance for the next 40 years.

    Air dominance is mandatory for future success. Since World War II, air dominance has carried the day in all conflicts. When air dominance has not been absolute, as in the Vietnam War, the result has been extensive loss of aircraft and loss of strategic advantage.

    Air dominance minimizes U.S. casualties and losses. Air dominance, provided by the F-22, guarantees freedom of maneuverability for ground, air and naval forces. It protects militarily important infrastructures, such as command and control facilities, power grids and factories, while increasing the efficiency of other military operations.

    America needs the F-22. The Air Force’s ability to control the skies ensures that the U.S. military can carry out its vital missions free from attack and free to attack.

    The F-22 will not just serve the Air Force; it will serve all surface forces as well. It has been almost 50 years since U.S. ground forces have been threatened by enemy air attacks; the F-22 is the best aircraft available to extend that timeline indefinitely.
    • Current U.S. ground combat doctrine is rooted in high-tempo, around-the-clock operations. The F-22 will best support these nonstop operations with its superior capabilities, higher sortie rate and low maintenance requirements
    • The key to success in modern warfare is air dominance — control of the battlespace
    • The F-22 is a national asset that will guarantee our soldiers, sailors, airmen and marines the ability to operate free from air attack
    • Without the F-22, "acceptable combat attrition" would replace air dominance


    The air threat to the United States now and in the future is real.
    • Current Russian fighters are already on par with America’s best fighter, the F-15. Europe's and Russia's newest class of fighters will surpass the F-15; they are set to roll off production lines by 2005
    • At least three foreign aircraft threaten to surpass the F-15’s performance in the near future: the French Rafale, the Eurofighter 2000 and the Russian Su-35. Some foreign aircraft are already at parity with the F-15
    • Nations are already denying America access to airspace around the globe by obtaining low-cost, but sophisticated, surface-to-air missile systems
    • Highly capable surface-to-air missile (SAM) systems pose a formidable challenge to the F-15’s survivability. Advanced SAM systems, because of their relatively low cost, are a quick and easy way for countries to modernize their air defense systems
    • Estimated twenty-one countries will possess the most advanced systems by 2005
    The F-22 provides America with an asymmetric advantage in the air as well as on the ground. These are the primary attributes of America’s premier 21st-century transformational system.

    The balanced design of the F-22 incorporates performance (supercruise, maneuver advantage, acceleration), reliability, maintainability and supportability (high readiness, self-sufficiency, reduced support), survivability (low observability), integrated avionics, optimum payload and affordability (low life-cycle cost, reduced deployability costs).

    The F-22 incorporates the latest technological gains in reduced observables, avionics, materials, engine performance and aerodynamic design. Knowledge gained from proven weapon systems such as the F-15 , F-16 and F-117A formed the foundation for F-22 development.

    The synergistic effect of all its characteristics ensures F-22 lethality against an advanced air threat. The combination of reduced observability and supercruise drastically shrinks surface-to-air engagement envelopes and minimizes threat capability to engage and shoot the F-22.

    F-22 is flying today with more than 6000 flight test hours and is meeting or exceeding all Air Dominance Key Performance Parameters.
    انجمن انگلیسی مرجع هوانوردی و هوافضای پارسی



    انجمن انگلیسی آبروی هوانوردی ایران



  4. #4
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    پیش فرض پاسخ : F-22 RAPTOR

    Building a fighter with capabilities never realized before means we must rely on our far-ranging experience and knowledge to push the envelope in terms of speed (particularly faster cycle times), accuracy, delivery and total integration. Rely on your total team - all players - to assist you in any areas going forward, both for major production and subcontractor issues.



    Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company
    (Marietta, GA)
    Responsible for overseeing weapon system integration; developing and constructing the forward fuselage, including the cockpit and inlets; the vertical fins and stabilators; wing and empennage leading edges, ailerons and flaperons; landing gear; and leading avionics architecture development and functional design, as well as displays, controls, the air data system and apertures.

    Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company
    (Fort Worth, TX)
    Responsible for developing and constructing the mid-fuselage; armament; providing the tailored electronic warfare system, the integrated communications, navigation and identification (CNI) system; stores management and inertial navigation systems; and development of the support system.

    Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company
    (Palmdale, CA)
    Responsible for developing and constructing the low-observable edges of the F-22 including the flaperons, ailerons, leading edge flaps, wing tips, wing stubs, aftbooms, vertical stubs, vertical leading edge, inlet diverter lips, rudders, CNI antennas and the Integrated Forebody. Also, Palmdale is one of two locations responsible for F-22 modernization work.



    Boeing
    (Seattle, Wash)
    Responsible for the wings and the aft fuselage, including the structures for engine and nozzle installation; avionics integration, including radar system development and testing and operation of the Avionics Integration Laboratory (AIL) and the 757 Avionics Flying Test Bed; and the development of the training, life support, and fire protection systems. Added achievements to date include development of stealthy coating to reduce the F-22’s vulnerability to infrared threats. .



    Pratt & Whitney
    (East Hartford, Conn)
    Under separate contract from the Air Force to provide the F-22's engines. The F119-PW-100 is a new, higher thrust-to-weight engine that is designed for efficient supersonic operation without afterburner (supercruise), and promises increased durability over current engines. Two F119 engines will power each F-22. Pratt & Whitney consolidated its military engine operations with its commercial programs in East Hartford during the course of F-119 development. The relocation was made to improve efficiency and reduce costs. .



    The U.S. Air Force
    The USAF plays a major role in the development of the F-22. Through their participation in flight tests, Air Force pilots have provided their expert, invaluable feedback to help the combined test force F-22 team create the safest, most capable fighter this nation has seen. Air Force participation in testing has helped and continues to help the F-22 development and operational test teams move more swiftly toward completing project milestones and meeting and exceeding congressional mandates and Defense reviews for aircraft performance, effectiveness and suitability.
    انجمن انگلیسی مرجع هوانوردی و هوافضای پارسی



    انجمن انگلیسی آبروی هوانوردی ایران



  5. #5
    English Site Admin
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    پیش فرض B-2 and F-22 Train Together

    B-2 and F-22 Train Together


    A 36th Expeditionary Maintenance Squadron crew chief conducts post flight maintenance on a B-2 Spirit after its arrival at Andersen Air Force Base, Guam. The B-2 is deployed from Whiteman Air Force Base, Mo. (U.S. Air Force photo/Senior Airman Ryan Whitney)


    United States Air Force B-2 bombers and F-22 fighters have started training together at Guam.

    The F-22 provides the kicking down of the door of stiff IADS (integrated air defense) threats and the B-2 provides the payload. The F-22 is capable of carrying two GBU-32 1000 pound class JDAMs. It will be cleared soon to carry 8 small diameter bombs (SDB). With the internal air-to-ground payload, the F-22 also carries a lot of gun ammo and four air-to air missiles, two AIM-120 AMRAAMs and two AIM-9 Sidewiders. Because of extreme altitude and super-cruise, the F-22 has demonstrated hitting targets with the JDAM as far away as 24 miles. With no air to ground loadout, the F-22 can carry six AMRAAMs and two AIM-9s.

    The F-22 takes over the mission of the F-117 as the United States Air Force's premiere penetrator into high risk IADs. The F-22 "kicks down the door" by killing off heavily defended radar sites and surface-to-air missile (SAM) systems. It also sweeps the skies of any enemy aircraft threats using not only its APG-77 AESA radar, but the exquisite AN/ALR-94 passive detection gear which can detect, classify and target enemy radar emissions. With the AN/ALR-94, the F-22s combat system uses the APG-77 radar sparingly in varioius modes only when an airborne target gets to within certain predetermined distances. The F-117 is considered to be obsolete. It doesn't have the sensors, air-to-air weapons and performance of the F-22, which is needed to survive modern IADs threats.

    The B-2 provides exceptional hitting power. Some years ago, using a new smart bomb rack, a B-2 dropped 80 GBU-38 500 pound class JDAMS to hit 80 different aimpoints all in one pass. The B-2 can also carry eight large bunker busters in the 4500-5000 pound class like the older GBU-37 "GAM" and its replacement, the GBU-28.

    Other B-2 weapons loadout options include up to eighty, Mark 62 naval mines, sixteen GBU-31 2000 pound class JDAMs, 16 AGM-158 JASSM cruise missiles to name but a few configurations.

    The B-2 is also capable of carrying nuclear bombs: Up to sixteen B-61-7s or B83-0s or eight B61-11s.

    The B-2 because of its design is considered to be broadband stealth. This means that its stealth resistance is to a wider variety of radar threats. The F-22 is considered somewhat broadband but its significant speed and altitude options allow it to use a wider variety of tactics. Both are considered "all aspect stealth" aircraft with the F-22 a little less because of its vertical tails.

    If Lockheed Martin, the maker of the F-22 doesn't hear any good news from Washington on funding, it will be forced to close down the F-22 production line at the beginning of March.



    Staff Sgt. Terry Vickery (left), Staff Sgt. Tim Sullivan, and Senior Airman Ryan Ott install an F-22 Raptor canopy Feb. 18 at Andersen Air Force Base, Guam. The Raptors are deployed from Elmendorf Air Force Base, Alaska, to Guam for three months. (U.S. Air Force photo/Master Sgt. Kevin J. Gruenwald)
    انجمن انگلیسی مرجع هوانوردی و هوافضای پارسی



    انجمن انگلیسی آبروی هوانوردی ایران



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  1. F-22 Raptor ؛ جنگنده
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