In 1957, the OKB-49 was made interesting developmental work - conceptual design of supersonic long-range maritime reconnaissance bomber. The basis for its implementation was the USSR CM Resolution ╧ 1119-582 of 15 August 1956 In this period, Air Force General Headquarters was determined with the abilities and characteristics of advanced aircraft, seaplanes, cruise missiles and aviation systems, "the media - doodlebug", with a view to proposals for the Air Force long-range combat equipment.
Therefore, DB, VM Myasishchev, AN Tupolev and GM Beriev involving TsAGI had to develop a draft long-range maritime reconnaissance bomber with the following basic performance characteristics:
Maximum flight speed: 1700-1800 km / h
Service range: 7500-8000 km
The normal combat load: 5000 kg
Take-off at wind wave height: 1,5 m
Landing at wind wave height: up to 1,8 m.
As conceived by aircraft designers intended for joint action with submarines, and for independent action on ocean routes. He was able to take off and land, as well as stay afloat on the high seas, day and night in adverse weather conditions with waves 3-4, to meet the submarine at a given point after a long flight over water at a great distance from the shore, refuel from submarines and surface ships at sea, with waves 3-4, to fly to the goal, her search for the discovery and use of weapons by day and night in all weather conditions and strong enemy ECM.
The project is particularly highlighted the possibility of dispersal of the seas and inland lakes of the USSR, in the event of a nuclear attack of the enemy.
Almost simultaneously with the Beriev design bureau received a similar mandate Tupolev and Myasishchev. The materials on this project almost did not survive. However, it is clear that to achieve given the performance of the power of two engines clearly not enough. Beriev Design Bureau has proposed a revised draft for four engines.
According to the tactical and technical requirements, the seaplane was designed by NC-6 engine design Kuznetsova. However, in-depth work on the project showed that the use of advanced NC-10 would create a machine with a high flying characteristics, so the final version of the designers of OKB Beriev stopped on this drive. Long-range maritime reconnaissance bomber was intended: for aerial reconnaissance for submarines, attacking convoys and compounds of ships of the enemy, the issue of target coordinates to the submarines, as well as to conduct independent military operations in the oceanic communications of the enemy. Provision for a long stay afloat, taking off and landing with a doodlebug day and night in adverse weather conditions, in the open ocean with waves 3-4, the meeting with the submarine in a given square after a long flight at a great distance from the coast, followed by fueling. The machine was supposed to solve problems under conditions of strong opposition and the enemy uses all means of defense at the approach to the goal. When two-time refueling of the submarine range at supersonic speeds could be increased to 20000 km. The complexity and novelty of the problem was that the experience of design and construction of such aircraft while absent.
Required to solve new problems, mainly on the aerodynamic and hydrodynamic layouts, strength, application of new landing gear to ensure suitable handling and good seaworthiness at high speeds off and landing. It was also necessary to prove the technical feasibility of creating a heavy high-speed hydroplane. To successfully address these and other problems had to mobilize the entire past experience. Based on the results of experimental studies of various models of seaplanes (tailless, flying wing, and others) in a wind tunnel of TsAGI, conducted an analysis of the possible flight performance and tactical use of the apparatus. The analysis of different options have a normal circuit with thin wings and a boat large aspect ratio. In addition to satisfying purely "aviation" factors set forth in the tactical requirements, it was necessary to ensure seaworthiness and given in a troubled sea. As a result, drew conclusions about the possibility of creating a heavy supersonic seaplane. Application of the same type of equipment as a naval bomber - the media anti-ship cruise missiles proved impractical because of its characteristics, he conceded ground bombers similar purpose. But of great interest is the use of the seaplane as a scout, as well as for other tasks. Particularly attracted by the possibility of military emergency vehicles dispersal in marine and oceans in the case of nuclear attack the enemy with subsequent execution of assigned missions.
An interesting feature of the supersonic long-range maritime reconnaissance bomber was its hydrodynamics. The design process considered different layouts: a redan scheme and with ski-wing landing gear. The project adopted the last option. The reason for this were the results of the model and field tests, conducted jointly with the TsAGI. The main bearing element gidroshassi was hydrofoil. In flight, it was removed flush with the bottom. Nasal gidrolyzha serves to provide the angle of attack of hydrofoil, to obtain the required lifting force on the critical speeds of the seaplane during the takeoff run. Lower surface gidrolyzhi supposed to perform at the bottom of the form of a boat, flush with whom she grew in the retracted position. Aft damper ski, which is the back reference point gidroshassi, taken at a 10% load. Hydrofoil housed behind the center of gravity of the aircraft during takeoff and landing regimes viewed the bulk of the external load. When designing a seaplane, the designation SD ICBM great attention to ease of operation and maintenance. The boat did not have a high aspect ratio planing steps. Most of its volume occupied by the fuel is placed in the tanks, compartments and-sealing tanks. Her nose was located pressurized cabin crew and equipment. In the middle part had gruzootsek length of 11 m for a cruise missile with bottom doors and deck lid. In the stern was cut off tank for pumping fuel in flight, necessary to shift the center of gravity backward in the transition from subsonic to supersonic.
The whole boat was divided into 14 watertight compartments designed to provide the required reserve buoyancy. But not to "carry the air", they placed the equipment and fuel. Wing caisson-type fuel tanks, compartments, was swept 60 ╟ on the front edge of the middle part and 35 ╟ y consoles. Located on the wing flaps and slotted ailerons. All frame members and sheathing have corrosion protective coating. On the wingtips positioned floats lateral stability. Tail consisted of a swept fin and managed by the stabilizer. Two turbofan engine NK-10 placed in the tail of the plane in general nacelles, while the other two - in nacelles above the wing. Powered turbojet fuel and oil carried out separately, the system provides fire and neutral gas. Fuel is accommodated in the fourteen tanks in the boat and eight wing. In the three boat-sealing tanks provided for the protection of 17 tonnes of fuel from the shells of caliber 20 mm and fragments weighing up to 1925 Air-thermal anti-icing system installed in your socks and the center-keel, Electricity - socks wing panels, stabilizer and engine air intake.
Flight and navigation equipment provides combat use of a seaplane in adverse weather conditions at all latitudes, at any time of day and included, in addition to the standard set of coursework and flight-navigation "Path", the Stars and solar tracker, the central gidrovertikal, automatic navigation, AP-33 autopilot. From the radio station is envisaged long-distance communications "Planet", the command VHF "Oak-5, airplane intercom SPU-6. The equipment of the Baku-C "was intended to work with sonobuoys buoys, and" Okhotsk "- for sonar communication with submarines in finding a seaplane afloat. There were long-range navigation system "Sphere-2, an automatic radio compass ARK-54B, radio altimeters small and large heights, etc., as well as special equipment in the form of intelligence-pointer. Jobs of the crew (pilot, navigator and operator) and equipped with bronespinkami bronezagolovnikami. For rescue of crew members for an emergency escape the plane in the air envisaged ejection seats. On the plane also had an inflatable rescue boat LAS-5M. Preparing bookmark prototype on the stocks. But the strategic views of the customer at that time have undergone significant changes, and OKB Beriev shifted to other topics.
Technical description of the aircraft.
The project provides that the crew of the aircraft will consist of three - pilot, navigator and operator, which is housed in a single pressurized cabin. Chair of the crew were supplied bronespinkami and bronezagolovnikami.
Equipment of the aircraft is mainly concentrated in the nose compartment boats. Most of the volume occupied by the fuselage fuel tanks, compartments, and soft-sealing tanks.
In the stern of the boat was on the draft tank compartment for pumping fuel in flight. This was required to move the center of mass back when flying at supersonic speeds. In the bow of the boat was located a compartment for attack aircraft projectile.
Hydroplane boat had a large elongation. Her bottom was performed without planing steps. In the bow of the boat was located pressurized cabin crew.
The entire boat is divided into 14 watertight compartments designed to house equipment and fuel. In the middle of the boat was located gruzootsek length of 11 m, having the entire length of bottom doors and deck lid. Sealing of manholes has been decided to implement an inflatable rubber hoses.
- Wing all-metal, cantilever, with a sweep 600 to the front edge of the middle part and 350 on the front edge consoles. It consisted of four main parts - the two center section and two consoles.
Wing design - caisson type. Caisson of the center-represented sections of tanks for fuel.
On the wing had slotted flaps and ailerons. All frame members and sheathing have corrosion protective coating.
At the ends of the consoles on pylons were installed normal floats riveted construction.
Tail plane consisted of a sagittal keel, and managed a stabilizer.
Seaplane used ski-wing gidroshassi. Its main elements - nose skis, hydrofoil and aft damping ski.
The nose ski is the front pivot point gidroshassi and perceived at a 10% load. Hydrofoil housed behind the center of mass of the aircraft and during takeoff and landing perceived bulk of the external load. It had a deadrise angle of the transverse profile 200 and the breakaway type.
Aft gidrolyzha played a stabilizing element, and acted as a damper, which provides longitudinal stability when driving a seaplane on a wave.
The plane was supposed to equip installed four Dual TRD NC-10. Two engines are set using the tail of the plane a total nacelle, the other two - in nacelles above the wing of an airplane. Input Devices engines supplied with adjustable cones. Feeding fuel and oil for all 4 engines to be managed separately predusmotrivalas system of fire fighting equipment and the system of neutral gas.
Fuel housed in 22 tanks with total capacity of 186,000 liters (his weight reached 144 m). Fourteen tanks were located in the boat, eight tanks - in the wing. Three boat-sealing tanks with total capacity of 17,000 kg were protected against 20-mm projectiles and fragments weighing up to 1925
Trunk banding provided a full production of fuel in case of failure of one or more engines. The fuel system was supplied with equipment that automatically provides a certain order of consumption of fuel and measure its quantity in the tanks.
Seaplane main power supply system was to serve three-phase system with voltage 115 V and 400 Hz, and the auxiliary - a system of direct current voltage of 28.5 V.
As a source of AC power using turbo-generators, and DC - DC generators and batteries. In stand-alone finding the plane afloat catering equipment carried on board a remotely controlled electric plant.
The crew was placed in a sealed cabin ventilation type, for maintaining a constant temperature in the cabin air is used, selected from the compressor engines. Jobs crew oborudovaldis means for connecting marine tall suits SR-5.
Seaplane provides for a system to maintain the necessary thermal conditions in the compartments of the equipment and cargo hold. For this purpose, use the air taken from the compressor engines.
Oxygen equipment ispolzvat aircraft liquid oxygen, which is stored in two cryogenic vessels such as the CSW-30.
Air-thermal anti-icing system was working elements in his socks and the center-keel, Electricity - socks wing, stabilizer and engine air intake.
Emergency escape aircraft in air crew members had ejection seats. Bailout carried down through the escape hatches with covers discharged at the bottom of the boat. On the seats, except the parachute system housed portable emergency reserves NAZ-1. In addition, on the plane in a special container was packed inflatable rescue boat LAS 5M together with a set of additional equipment and two radio stations, Abraham-45M and "Pin-A-2.
Control system - electro, irreversible. Electro irreversible standalone drives housed in a compartment of the boat at the rear wing spar. Control run from the cockpit to the rudder drives - hard duplicated.
Flight and navigation equipment - provides combat use of a seaplane in adverse weather conditions at all latitudes, at any time of day, and included the exchange rate system of the bomber flight-navigation system "path", the stellar-solar tracker, the central gyrovertical, the central velocity and height , automatic navigation, autopilot AP 33. All systems communicate among themselves and with radio navigation and radar equipment, forming a common flight control and navigation system.
Seaplane provided for the installation of the following equipment: long-distance communication systems, "Planet", the command VHF radio "Oak-5, aircraft intercom SPU-6, the equipment," Baku "to work with sonobuoys buoys equipment" Okhotsk "for sonar communication with Submarine in finding a seaplane on water, long-range navigation system "Sphere-2, an automatic radio compass ARK-54B, altimeter low altitude RVU-2 high-altitude altimeter RV-25, a system of blind landing" Vologda "apparatus" Vesuvius "to measure the length and wave height, measuring ground speed drift angle and flight altitude, "Wind 2", ir "duralumin" warning system irradiation Sirena-3 ", a complex of radio-counter" Cornflower "emergency station" Camellia ", compact beacon "Pin-1", small boxes, "Spotlight" for the radar sight, radar (the type was not determined at the stage of conceptual design).
In the embodiment of intelligence-designator for the aircraft additionally installed system "Tees" for the detection of surface targets, short-range transmission of the radar on a submarine or shore station, the apparatus further transmission of the radar targets ashore with the prefix "star" system and "Planet" , the total electronic intelligence apparatus, "Diamond-2.
In the version of the scout seaplane could be established photographic equipment.
The basic version of the weapons - Managed doodlebug K-21 air-to-ship. " Самолет-снаряд со сложенными крыльями размещался в грузоотсеке лодке. Кроме того, в грузоотсеке могли быть подвешены свободнопадающие бомбы (изделия типа "6") и мины общей массой до 5000 кг.
Modification DM ICBM
Wingspan, m 26.40
Length, m 61.40
Height, m 11.50
Wing area, m2 325.00
normal takeoff 114000
Engine Type 4 NK-10 turbofan engines
Maximum cruise speed, km / h 2440
Range, km 7000-7700
Practical ceiling, m 20000